Nivel de acidez de un buen aceite de oliva


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Nivel de acidez de un buen aceite de olivaNivel de acidez de un buen aceite de oliva

Hace un par de días redacté un artículo sobre los beneficios del ácido oleico, un ácido graso presente en los triglicéridos del aceite de oliva y hoy conoceremos los diferentes grados de acidez de los aceites, qué significa el valor de esa acidez y en qué rangos se mueven los mejores aceites.

Con este fin analizaremos primeramente las características y cualidades de los ácidos grasos más importantes que conforman los triglicéridos del aceite de oliva: el oleico, linoleico y el linolénico. El ácido oleico es un ácido graso presente en una elevadísima proporción en el aceite de oliva. Aproximadamente, un 75% de su composición. En segundo lugar y por orden decreciente en la composición, se encuentra el ácido linoleico (su proporción se encuentra en un rango de 3.5%-21%) que, como en el caso del ácido oleico, es también un ácido graso esencial que nuestro organismo no es capaz de sintetizar y, por tanto, su consumo es necesario y muy beneficioso.

Otro ácido graso presente en el aceite es el ácido linolénico, un ácido graso poliinsaturado que está presente en una proporción que variará entre el 0 y 1.5%. Diferente al ácido linoleico (éste corresponde al omega 6 mientras que el linolénico al 3), este ácido graso es muy beneficioso para el organismo, pero aún no se ha conseguido averiguar exactamente cómo actúa. Se sabe que disminuye la presencia de arritmias cardiacas y que ejerce un efecto neuroprotector evitando la aparición de isquemias y epilepsias, pero se desconoce el procedimiento.

Es evidente que si se suman las acciones beneficiosas de estos tres ácidos presentes en los triglicéridos del aceite, el consumo diario del aceite de oliva se hace más que necesario. Juntos constituyen más de un 85% del aceite de oliva, aunque las proporciones exactas variarán en según los siguientes factores: tipo de cultivo, fruto obtenido, maduración, climatología, altitud, etc. Estas variaciones determinarán la calidad del aceite, a mayor proporción, mejor calidad.

El nivel de acidez de un buen aceite de oliva es algo muy distinto que no hay que confundir con la proporción de ácidos grasos en los triglicéridos del aceite. La acidez proviene de una descomposición química de los triglicéridos que se produce por una reacción química denominada hidrólisis o lipólisis en la que se forman los ácidos grasos libres. Cuando el aceite se extrae de forma poco cuidada, de frutos de baja calidad y se han dado factores adversos en la climatología y/o en la cosecha en general, los grados de acidez serán elevados debido a una fuerte descomposición química de los triglicéridos. El porcentaje de los ácidos grasos libres será muy alto.

Por consiguiente, el grado de ácidos grasos libres es un sistema de medida de la calidad de un aceite que refleja el cuidado que se ha dado desde la siembra, hasta la extracción del jugo de la oliva. Un aceite extraído de una fruto sano, fresco por métodos cuidados en los que no se ha utilizado un exceso de calor darán aceites de gran calidad, el proceso de descomposición química de los triglicéridos será mínimo y el porcentaje de ácidos grasos libres será bajo, por lo tanto el grado de acidez será inferior al 0.8%.

Por eso, el nivel de acidez de un buen aceite de oliva, de los de máxima calidad, tendrán un nivel inferior a 0.8%; los aceites vírgenes, un nivel inferior al 2%; el aceite de oliva, resultante de la mezcla de caldos de menor calidad y su posterior refinado, un nivel de entre el 10%-20%.

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